Archive for the ‘famous’ Category

Famous religious figures and leaders

A selection of famous spiritual/religious figures and leaders. Many of these religious personalities have founded a new religion or new religious movement. In other cases, they helped to revitalise a particular religion or spiritual movement.

 

Sri Ramachandra (c. 7th century BC) A principal figure of the Ramayana – an important spiritual classic of Hinduism. Rama is considered to be an incarnation of Vishnu and the supreme teacher of dharma – the devotion to duty, self-control and virtue.

krishna Sri Krishna (3/4th Century BC) – Within Hinduism, Krishna is recognised as an Avatar of Vishnu. Krishna’s teachings to Arjuna form the basis of the Bhagavad Gita, which is considered one of the most sacred texts of Hinduism. Devotion to Krishna is a major aspect of Hinduism in the Vaishnava tradition.

mosesMoses (1391 BC – 1271 BC) Moses was a key prophet of the Old Testament. He received the Torah (law) on Mount Sinai, which includes the Ten Commandments. Moses is a prophet within Judaism, but also Christianity and Islam.

lao-tzuLaozi (Lao Tsu) (c 571 BC) Laozi was a Chinese poet and philosopher. He was the author of the Tao Te Ching and the founder of philosophical Taoism. Also important figure in traditional Chinese religions.

Pythagoras (c. 570 BC – c 495 BC) Greek philosopher, spiritual leader and mathematician. Pythagoras was credited by Plato with many key ideas in maths, science, ethics and philosophy. Pythagoras was a religious leader of a secret mystical school.

writerConfucius (551–479 BC) Chinese philosopher and author of The Analects. Confucius shaped Chinese culture, writing about family, loyalty, virtue and respect for elders. His philosophy created Confucianism.

ZarthushtraZoroaster / Zarathustra (c 550-523 BC) A prophet and spiritual teacher who founded the religion of Zoroastrianism. Zoroaster was a religious reformer teaching a monotheistic religion based on choosing between light and darkness/truth and falsehood.

mahaviraMahavira (540 BCE–468 BCE) Mahavira was an important propagator and reformer of Jainism. He helped to spread the Jain religion of non-violence across India.

buddhaBuddha (c 560BC – c 460BC) Siddharta the Buddha attained nirvana after years of meditation and spent many years teaching his philosophy of enlightenment. His teachings led to the creation of Buddhism.

Jesus Christ (around 0 AD – 32 AD) Jesus Christ was a spiritual teacher who taught a gospel of love and forgiveness. His message was spread by his disciples and it led to the birth of Christianity.

St Paul (c.5 – c. 67) – Missionary and influential early Christian. The letters of St Paul form a significant part of the New Testament. St Paul is responsible for the growth and development of Christianity as a modern religion.

maniMani (216–274 AD) founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity. Mani taught a form of Gnostic Christianity fused with elements of Buddhism and Hinduism. Manichaeism, like Zoroastrianism, stressed the battle between good and evil and the necessity for individuals to strive for purification and greater devotion.

BodhidharmaBodhidharma (5th or 6th century AD) Buddhist spiritual teacher who travelled from India to China and founded the branch of Ch’an (Zen) Buddhism, which focuses on meditation as a path to enlightenment.

muhammadMuhammad (c. 570 – 8 June 632) Prophet and messenger of God. The revelations he shared became the foundation of the Qu’ran and the Muslim religion. His main spiritual teachings were centred on the complete “surrender” (lit. Islam) to the One God.

SankaracharyaAdi Shankara (9th Century AD) Shankaracharya was a noted spiritual teacher and philosopher. He spread a philosophy of Advaita Vedanta, which stresses the underlying unity of creation. He also founded the Dashanami monastic order

St Francis of Assisi (1182 – 1226) St Francis devoted his life to poverty, chastity and living the truth of the Gospels. He successfully persuaded the Pope to allow the creation of a new religious order. (The Franciscans) – devoted to the spirit of the gospels.

wycliffeJohn Wycliffe (1330 -1384) Translated some of the first versions of Bible into English. Wycliffe was an early critic of the Papacy and clerical power. His followers became known as Lollards and were precursors to the Protestant Reformation.

historicalGuru Nanak (1469-1539) Spiritual Guru and founder of Sikhism. Nanak was born in a Hindu family but taught God was beyond religious distinction and sought to teach that God was in all.

Sri Chaitanya (1486–1534) a devotee of Lord Krishna, Sri Chaitanya’s followers saw him as an incarnation of Vishnu. Sri Chaitanya taught the path of bhakti – devotional love for Sri Krishna. Chaitanya played a significant role in the revitalisation of Vaishnavism in India and Bengal in particular.

Martin Luther (1483-1546) – Sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church which he felt had been corrupted and lost its original focus. Luther was a principal figure in the Protestant Reformation and growth of the Protestant tradition.

St_Ignatius_of_LoyolaIgnatius of Loyola (1491– 1556) Basque Spanish Priest and theologian. Ignatius founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) during the Counter-Reformation – emphasising absolute loyalty to the Pope and Catholic Church.

Saint Teresa of Ávila (1515 – 1582) – Spanish mystic, writer and reformer. St Terese of Avila was an influential and pivotal figure of her generation. She reformed and helped to expand the Carmelite order.

george-foxGeorge Fox (1624 – 1691 ) Founder of the Quaker movement – known as the Religious Society of Friends. Fox was a radical religious reformer who spoke against rituals and outer prestige, developing a religion which encouraged equality, the importance of silence and using meditation as well as scripture.

Emanuel_SwedenborgEmanuel Swedenborg (1688 – 1772) Christian mystic who wrote a volume on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). He advocated a version of Christianity where works count as much as faith.

Baal_Shem_TovBaal Shem Tov (1698–1760) Polish Jewish mystic. Founder of Hasidic Judaism. Baal Shem taught the importance of immanent spiritual experience and rejected some of the more legalistic aspects of Judaism.

John Wesley (1703-1791) – Anglican preacher and evangelist. Wesley is credited with founding the Anglican tradition of Methodism. Methodism stresses the role of social service to cultivate love of one’s fellow man.

jonathan-edwardsJonathan Edwards (1703 – 1758) American Christian revivalist preacher. Edwards was a leading figure in the Reformed movement of Christian evangelism which swept America in the Eighteenth Century. He gave a classic sermon – “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741)

Raja_Ram_Mohan_RoyRaja Rammohun Roy (1772 – 1833) Influential political and cultural activist who helped found the Brahmo Samaj. – A social/religious organisation dedicated to the revival of rational/modern Hinduism.

Brigham_YoungBrigham Young (1801 – 1877) was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement. He led his early Mormon followers to Salt Lake City, Utah.

Joseph_SmithJoseph Smith (1805 – 1844) Founder of Mormonism / Latter Day Saint movement. Smith published the Book of Mormon which is an important text to the Latter Day Saint Movement.

Bahá’u’lláh (1817 – 1892) Bahá’u’lláh was the founder of the Bahai Faith. Bahaism is a monotheistic faith which has roots with Shia Islam. Bahaullah is seen as the last in a line of prophets stretching from Moses, to Jesus, Muhammad and also Krishna and Buddha.

Mary_Baker_EddyMary Baker Eddy (1821 – 1910) Founder of Christian science – a new religious movement which believes physical illness is a mental illusion that can only be corrected through prayer.

William Booth (1829 – 1912) Booth was the founder of the Salvation Army. This was a Christian humanitarian charity which sought to help and evangelise the underprivileged sections of society.

helena-blavetskyHelena Blavatsky (1831 – 1891) Co-founder of the Theosophical movement. Blavatsky was a medium and mystic who helped develop the esoteric and philosophical society.

Sri Ramakrishna (1836 – 1886) An influential Bengali mystic and spiritual Guru. Ramakrishna followed the practices of all religions and came to the conclusion that all religions and sects could lead a man to God. The Ramakrishna Math was founded by his disciple Vivekananda.

Swami Vivekananda (1863 – 1902 ) A disciple of Sri Ramakrishna, Vivekananda helped bring yoga to the West and spoke about the underlying unity of world religions at the Parliament of World Religions (1893). Vivekananda also founded the Ramakrishna Movement or Vedanta Movement.

Sri Aurobindo (1872 – 1950 ) A spiritual Teacher, philosopher and poet. He taught an integral yoga – a yoga of world acceptance and divine surrender. His spiritual philosophy was expressed in works such as The Life Divine and Savitri.

Pope_John_XXIIIPope Saint John XXIII (1881 – 1963) Pope of the Roman Catholic Church (1958-63). He instigated the historic Second Vatican Council (1962–65) which introduced many new reforms for the Catholic church.

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada: (1896-1977) Founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), commonly known as the “Hare Krishna Movement”. His mission was to spread a form of Vaishnavism in the West.

Mother Teresa (1910-1997) – Albanian Catholic nun. Mother Teresa devoted her life to the care and service of the poor, especially in India where she founded her Missionaries of Charity organisation.

L._Ron_HubbardL Ron Hubbard (1911–1986) American science fiction writer and creator of Scientology religion.

Abbe Pierre (1912-2007) – French Catholic priest who found the Emmaüs movement, which has the goal of helping the poor, homeless and refugees.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1918- 2008) Indian spiritual Teacher, who founded the popular Transcendental meditation movement.

Pope John Paul II (1920 – 2005) Polish Pope of the Catholic Church. Pope John Paul II was an influential pope who helped define the role of the Catholic church in modern society.

Thich Nhat Hanh (1926 – ) Vietnamese monk who inspired the movement of engaged Buddhism. Hanh has been a prominent peace activist and has written extensively on incorporating Buddhist teachings into everyday life.

Dalai Lama (14th) (1950 – ) The leader of Tibetans both politically and spiritually. The Dalai Lama taught the importance of loving kindness and a practical Buddhism for both Easterners and Westerners.

Pope Francis (1936 – ) The first Jesuit Pope and the first Pope from the Americas. Pope Francis has been credited with revitalising the Catholic Church by concentrating on the basic message of the Gospels, ‘selflessness, humility, charity and faith.’

ammaAmma Mata Amritanandamayi (1953 – ) Indian / Hindu saint who has embraced millions of pilgrims from around the world.

 

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Famous spiritual/religious leaders”, Oxford, UK. www.biographyonline.net 20th March 2015.

World Religions: The Great Faiths Explored & Explained

Book CoverWorld Religions: The Great Faiths Explored & Explained at Amazon – A refreshing approach to understanding different faiths and insights into the world’s most important religions—offering a deeper appreciation of the beliefs central to each.

Related pages

Famous saints – Saints from different religious and spiritual traditions.

historicalSpiritual Teachers – Influential spiritual teachers, including Jesus Christ, Guru Nanak, Milarepa, Meister Eckhart.

 

Famous Swedish People

Despite a population of less than 10 million, Sweden has produced many famous people. Of particular note, despite a small population, Sweden is in the top 10 list of countries regarding the total number of Olympic medals (including Summer and Winter Games) – This makes Sweden have one of the highest (4th) ‘medal to population ratios’ in the world.

Gustavus_Adolphus,_King_of_Sweden_1611-1632_Gustav II Adolf (1594 – 1632) King of Sweden who helped establish Sweden as major European power during the Thirty Years War. Gustav was a pioneering military leader and also a skilled administrator. He reformed Swedish society, creating a strong system of government and administration. His success helped strengthen the influence of Protestantism in Europe. He died in battle in 1632.

Emanuel_SwedenborgEmanuel Swedenborg (1688 – 1772) Born Stockholm, Swedenborg was a noted mining engineer, innovator, scientist, philosopher and Christian mystic. He wrote an influential volume on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). He advocated a version of Christianity where works count as much as faith.

Alfred_NobelAlfred Nobel (1833 – 1896) Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer. Nobel invented dynamite and held 350 other patents. He left a legacy to fund prizes for key sciences, and most notably the Nobel Peace Prize – which is one of the most prestigious awards in the world.

Tage_ErlanderTage Erlander (1901 – 1985) Sweden’s longest serving Prime Minister from (1946 – 69). Erlander was a moderate who expanded social welfare and maintained Sweden’s strict neutrality and remaining nuclear-free.

Dag_HammarskjoldDag Hammarskjöld (1905–1961), Second Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1953-61. Hammarskjold played a key role in the development of the embryonic United Nations in the difficult Cold War years of the 1950s.

Raoul_WallenbergRaoul Wallenberg (1912 – 1945) Swedish architect, businessman and diplomat. While serving as special envoy to Hungary during Second World War, Wallenberg saved tens of thousands of Jews from persecution by offering them Swedish nationality and protection in Swedish buildings. He was taken by Soviet agents in Jan 1945 and died in Soviet custody.

Ingvar_KampradIngvar Kamprad (1926 – ) Business entrepreneur, Kamprad is the founder of the furniture chain IKEA. It has made him one of the richest self-made businessmen in the world. Based on a philosophy of simplicity, frugality and enthusiasm for the product.

Olof_PalmeOlof Palme (1927 – 1986) Two-term Prime Minister for the Social Democrat party – from 1969-76 and 1982-86. Palme was a pivotal figure in Swedish politics. He also committed Sweden to a policy of non-alignment with the major blocs (US / Soviet). He also supported Third World Liberation movements. Assassinated on the street in 1986.

 

Film / Music

Greta_GarboGreta Garbo (1905–1990) actress. One of the greatest female actresses. Garbo was a star of both silent film and early talkies. She was awarded an honorary Academy Award in 1954.

Ingrid Bergmaningrid-bergman (1915 –  1982) Swedish actress who was highly regarded for her roles in influential films, such as Casablanca (1942), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943) and Anastasia (1956). She is the second most decorated Hollywood actress, with three Oscars.

directorIngmar Bergman (1918 – 2007) Swedish film director who was highly influential in shaping a new strand of films addressing issues of faith, death and sex. Famous films include; The Virgin Spring (1960), Through a Glass Darkly (1961), Fanny and Alexander (1983) and The Magician (Ansiktet) (1960).

abbaAbba (1972 -82) Hugely successful pop group from Stockholm. Comprising Agnetha Fältskog, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson, and Anni-Frid Lyngstad they sold 300 million-plus records worldwide.

 

Famous Sports Persons

tennisBjorn Borg (1956 – ) (Sweden, tennis) During a relatively short career, he won 11 Grand Slam titles. Borg won 89% of Grand Slam games he participated in – a record today.

Ingemar_StenmarkJan Ingemar Stenmark (1956 – ) Widely considered the greatest Slalom skier of all time. Stenmark won a record 86 Slalom World Cups over a career of 16 seasons. Double Olympic medallist and three World Championships.

Jan-Ove_WaldnerJan-Ove Waldner (1965 – ) (Sweden, table tennis). Waldner has been at the pinnacle of table tennis for over two decades.  He won a medal at every World Championship from 1983 to 2001. Olympic gold medallist in 1992.

Magda_Forsberg_AntholzMagdalena “Magda” Forsberg (1967 – ) Forsberg was the dominant biathlete during her career of 1997 to 2002. She was World Champion six consecutive times and

Annika_SorenstamAnnika Sörenstam (1970 – ) (Sweden, golf) Most successful female golfer. Sorenstam has won 72 official LPGA titles.

zlatan-IbrahimovicZlatan Ibrahimović (1971- ) Swedish striker who has played for Ajax, Juventus, Inter Milan, Barcelona, A.C. Milan Paris St Germain and Sweden national team. For Sweden, he scored 51 goals from 100 games. He is also known for his acerbic charismatic personality.

Anja_ParsonAnja Sofia Tess Pärson (1981 – ) Olympic gold medallist and seven times World Champion. The versatile Alpine Skier has won 42 World Cup meetings, including Giant Slalom, Downhill, Slalom and Super G.

Greta_ThunbergGreta Thunberg (2003 – ) Swedish schoolgirl who has become a global leader for environmental issues and leading protests against global warming. In Sweden, Thurnberg began a school-strike outside Parliament to mobilise support for direct action on global warming. This national strike spread to other countries and she has become a global ambassador for the environmental movement.

 

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Famous Swedish People”, Oxford, UK www.biographyonline.net Published: 9 February 2015. Last updated 29 July 2019.

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Famous Europeans – A list of famous and influential European. In particular, a focus on the European who helped set up the EEC/ European Union, such as Jean Monnet, Charles de Gaulle and Willy Brandt.

Sir_Winston_S_ChurchillPeople who changed the world – Famous people who changed the course of history including Socrates, Newton, Jesus Christ, Muhammad, Queen Victoria, Catherine the Great, Einstein and Gandhi.

gorbachevFamous Russians – A list of famous Russians from Tsarist Emperors to composers and authors. Includes; Catherine the Great, Lenin, Stalin, Putin and Gorbachev.

 

Indian Independence Movement

The Indian independence movement encompasses the efforts to free India from British rule from the Nineteenth Century until the granting of Independence in 1947. The Independence Movement involved a range of different strategies from revolutionary acts of violence, to peaceful non-violent protests.

Leaders of the Independence movement

GK-GokhaleGopal Krishna Gokhale 1866 – 1915 Gokhale was an early leader of the Indian National Congress. Gokhale supported social and political reform which would give India greater autonomy. He was considered a moderate – working with British institutions and opposing more direct approaches to independence. Gokhale was an important mentor to Gandhi.

gandhiMahatma Gandhi (1869 – 1948) The foremost political leader of the Indian independence movement. For over two decades, Gandhi led a peaceful independence movement, characterised by non-violent protests, such as boycotts and the Salt March. He commanded respect from both Hindus and Muslim, but, despite seeking a united India, was unable to avoid the partition of 1947. He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic in 1948.

sri_aurobindoSri Aurobindo (1872 – 1950)  One of the key figures in the early Indian Independence movement, Aurobindo initiated early efforts at full independence and was sympathetic to armed resistance. After his retreat to a spiritual ashram, he rarely spoke on political matters apart from in 1942, where he urged Congress and Gandhi to accept the Cripps proposal to give Indian Dominion status. Sri Aurobindo became a noted philosopher, poet and Spiritual Teacher.

al-JinnahAli Jinnah (1876 – 1948) Jinnah was leader of the All-India Muslim league from 1913 to 1947 and then as Pakistan’s first Governor. Initially, Jinnah advocated Hindu-Muslim unity and supported the All-India Home Rule League. But from 1940, he rejected the idea of a united India and advocated an independent Muslim state of Pakistan.

muhammad-IqbalSir Muhammad Iqbal (1877 – 21 April 1938) Iqbal was an Islamic poet, philosopher and politician. As President of the All-Muslim League, Iqbal was influential in promoting the idea of separate Muslim provinces and ultimately was influential in encouraging Jinnah to embrace the idea of a separate nation of Pakistan

nehruJawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) – Nehru was an influential nationalist from the 1910s. With the backing of Gandhi, he came to lead Congress, moving the party to the left and seeking a united independent India. After Congress was politically diminished after the British crackdown on the ‘Quit India’ movement of 1942, Congress was unable to prevent the partition of India. Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India.

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945) Indian nationalist leader. Netaji raised a united Indian army  (INA) of all religious faiths in an attempt to gain independence for India through military means.

 

Indian Revolutionaries

Bal_G._TilakBal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 – 1920) Prominent early leader of the Indian nationalist cause. Tilak was an early proponent of Swaraj and was imprisoned for sedition. Despite his radical stance, Gandhi saw Tilak as one of his political mentors.

Bipin-Chandra-PalBipin Chandra Pal (1858–1932) One of the early Indian nationalist leaders, who like Lala Rai and Tilak, proposed direct action to secure Indian freedom.

Lala_lajpat_RaiLala Lajpat Rai (1865 – 1928) Punjabi author and politician, Lal was a leader of the Indian independence movement. Lal died after sustaining injuries in a protest against British rule. This led to major demonstrations across India.

Chittaranjan_DasChitta Ranjan Das (1870-1925) Lawyer and politician – Das represented Sri Aurobindo at the Alipore bomb trial and founded the Bengali Swaraj ‘Independence’ Party in Bengal.

Surya_SenSurya Sen (1894 –  1934) Surya Sen was an Indian revolutionary who was elected President of the Chittagong Indian National Congress. In 1930, he led a group of revolutionaries in the Chittagong Armoury raid, and three years later was captured and executed.

Bhagat_SinghBhagat Singh (1907 – 1931) Singh was a leader of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Born a Sikh he became influenced by Marxist and Anarchist philosophies and was committed to gaining independence for India, through violence if necessary. He was executed in 1931 for his part in killing a British officer.

 

Women in the Independence movement

authorSarojini Naidu (1879-1949) Influential Indian author and poet. Also Indian independence activist and poet.

sister_NiveditaSister Nivedita (1867 – 1911) Born in Ireland, Sister Nivedita moved to India after meeting Swami Vivekananda in London, 1895. In India, she was involved in social work and the cause of Indian independence.

Annie_BesantAnnie Besant (1847 – 1933) Besant came to India because of her interest in Theosophy. She also campaigned for Indian independence and for a year was the leader of the fledgeling Indian National Congress in 1917.

Matangini_HazraMatangini Hazra (1870 – 1942) Hazra popularly known as “Gandhi Buri” was an Indian protester shot dead by the British Indian police in 1942. Hazra played a long role in the Indian independence movement. In 1942 the Quit India movement sought to take a police station in Midnapore district when she was shot carrying an Indian flag.

People of the Indian Renaissance

Raja_Ram_Mohan_RoyRaja Rammohun Roy (1772 –  1833) Considered the father of the Indian Renaissance for his attempts to promote reform and also protect Indian rights. He helped to found the influential Brahmo Samaj which was a reforming Hindu organisation dedicated to both modernisations and also promoting Hindu values.

Sri Ramakrishna (1836 – 1886) An illiterate mystic. Ramakrishna inspired many influential people in both India and the West. His spiritual sadhana offered a synthesis of all the main religious and spiritual strands.

Jagadish_Chandra_BoseSri Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858 –  1937) Bengali polymath. Bose took an interest in a wide range of sciences. He made contributions to plant physiology, microwave optics and radio waves. Bose was part of the Indian scientific renaissance.

rabindranath_tagore-150Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) The Seer-Poet of modern India. Tagore was the first Indian to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Tagore was influential in creating a new genre of songs and wrote the national anthem adopted by both India and later Bangladesh.

vivekanandaSwami Vivekananda (1863 – 1902 ) – Vivekananda played an important role in revitalising pride in India and Hinduism as a source of universal tolerance. Many leaders acknowledged their debt to Vivekananda for his inspiration, dynamism and motivation to uplift India – both materially and spiritually.

Dwijendra_Lal_RoyDwijendra Lal Roy (1863 – 1913) – Bengali poet and playwright. Wrote over 500 Bengali songs. Influential Indian nationalist, who opposed the partition of Bengal, and helped to raise the political awareness of Bengal.

kazai-NazrulKazi Nazrul Islam (1899 – 1976) Bengali poet, writer, musician and revolutionary. Islam was a committed revolutionary often jailed for his protests against British rule. Also, a noted composer and considered National Poet of Bangladesh.

 

Founding Fathers of India

Bankim_chandraBankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (1838 – 1894) Bengali poet, author and journalist. Bankim composed Vande Mataram – which became the national song of India and played a pivotal role in the Indian nationalist movement.

Sardar_patelSardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875 – 1950) Indian barrister and politician. Patel was a leading figure in the leadership of the Indian Congress and played a leading role in the Independence struggle. He was deputy Prime Minister 1947-50 and is considered one of India’s founding fathers for helping to integrate the Indian states after independence.

RadhakrishnanDr S. Radhakrishnan (1888 – 1975) Radhakrishnan was the foremost philosopher of modern Indian thought. He defended Hinduism and sought to make it relevant to the modern age. 2nd President of India.

Dr B.R. AmbedkarDr._Bhim_Rao_Ambedkar (1891 – 1956) – Political activist and social reformer who campaigned for greater equality for ‘untouchable castes’ and women. Ambedkar played a key role in drafting the Indian constitution.

VenkataramanPresident R Venkataraman (1910 – 2009) Indian lawyer, Indian independence activist and Eighth President of India.

 

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Indian Independence Movement,” Oxford, UK www.biographyonline.net 9th February 2015. Last updated 1 February 2018.Book Cover

Freedom at Midnight
– The story of Indian Independence at Amazon.

Related

gandhiFamous Indians – A list of Indian men and women throughout the ages. Categories include politicians, scientists, sports people, spiritual figures and cultural figures. Includes Mahatma Gandhi, Akbar, Swami Vivekananda and Indira Gandhi.

Famous Revolutionaries – People who inspired or began revolutions. Including Spartacus, Joan of Arc, George Washington, Karl Marx.

 

Famous mathematicians

A list of the greatest and most influential mathematicians.

 

ThalesThales (c. 624 – c.547 BC) Greek philosopher who is considered one of the first mathematicians. Thales made pioneering use of geometry to calculate height and distance. He also used deductive reasoning in creating ‘Thales’ theorem. Thales was an important figure in the ‘Scientific Revolution of Ancient Greece, which rejected the use of mythology and developed science and reason.

Pythagoras (c. 570 BC – c 495 BC) Greek philosopher, spiritual leader and mathematician. Pythagoras is believed to be one of the first Western men to describe himself as a philosopher – ‘lover of wisdom’ His philosophy was based on the mystic traditions of Egypt and Greece. He is also credited with ‘Pythagoras theorem’ – about the relation of triangles in geometry.

writerEuclid (c. 325 – 265 BC) Greek mathematician. Euclid is often referred to as the ‘father of modern geometry.’ His book ‘Elements‘ provided the basis of mathematics into the Twentieth Century.

historicalArchimedes (287 B.C – 212) Mathematician, scientist and inventor. Archimedes made many contributions to mathematics, such as a calculation of pi, geometrical theorems and developing a concept of exponentiation for very large numbers.

PtolemyPtolemy (c. 90 – c. 168 AD) Greek / Roman mathematician, astronomer, poet and geographer. Ptolemy wrote one of the few surviving ancient works on astronomy – the Almagest.

aryabhataAryabhata (c. 476 – c. 550) Indian mathematician and astronomer. Aryabhata was influential in the development of trigonometry. In astronomy, he made accurate explanations of lunar eclipses’ and the circumference of the earth. His great works include: Āryabhaṭīya and the Arya-Siddhanta

Omar_KhayyamOmar Khayyám (1048-1131) Persian poet, philosopher, astronomer and mathematician. Khayyam wrote an influential work on algebra – Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra (1070)

FibonacciLeonardo Pisano Bigollo (1170-1250) Italian mathematician. Bigollo helped standardise the Hindu–Arabic numeral system – through his Liber Abaci (Book of Calculation) (1202). Bigollo is considered the greatest mathematician of the medieval ages.

writerRene Descartes (1596 – 1650) French philosopher and mathematician. Descartes made important discoveries in analytical geometry (bridging algebra and geometry), calculus and other fields of mathematics.

Pierre_de_FermatPierre de Fermat (1601-1665) French lawyer and amateur mathematician. Fermat helped develop infinitesimal calculus. Best known for his ‘Fermat’s Last Theorem, which he described in a margin of a copy of Diophantus’ Arithmetica.

Blaise_PascalBlaise Pascal (1623-1662) French mathematician, philosopher and inventor. Pascal worked on projective geometry and corresponded with Pierre de Fermat on probability theory. Pascal’s Triangle is a term given to his presentation on binomial coefficients, (“Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle”) of 1653.

newtonSir Isaac Newton (1642-1726) English scientist. Newton made studies in mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy. In his Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, he laid the foundations for classical mechanics, explaining the law of gravity and the Laws of Motion. In mathematics, he also studied power series, binomial theorem, and developed a method for approximating the roots of a function.

Gottfried_von_LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) German mathematician, innovator and philosopher. Leibniz developed mechanical calculators and worked on theories of calculus. In philosophy, he was a leading rationalist philosopher – also noted for his optimism about the universe.

Leonhard_EulerLeonhard Euler (1707-1783) Swiss mathematician and physicist. Euler made important discoveries in infinitesimal calculus, graph theory mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory. Euler also formalised many mathematical notations.

joseph-louis-LagrangeJoseph Louis Lagrange (1736 – 1813)  Italian mathematician and astronomer. He made significant contributions to the fields of analysis, number theory, and both classical and celestial mechanics.

Carl_Friedrich_GaussCarl Gauss (1777 – 1855) German mathematician. Often referred to as Princeps mathematicorum – “the Prince of Mathematicians” Gauss was influential in a range of mathematics, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics.

Ada_LovelaceAda Lovelace (1815-1852) English mathematician. Daughter of Lord Byron, Lovelace developed an interest in maths and logic and worked with Charles Babbage writing one of the first computer algorithms – Work on the Analytical Engine. Lovelace saw the potential of computers to be more than just calculating machines.

Bernhard_RiemannBernhard  Riemann (1826-1866) German mathematician, who made substantial contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry. His work was a precursor to the general theory of relativity.

david-HilbertDavid Hilbert (1862-1943) German logician/mathematician. Hilbert was influential in the Twentieth Century study of maths. He was one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic. He created the invariant theory, the axiomatization of geometry and the theory of Hilbert spaces.

Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) German/ US. Revolutionised modern physics with his general theory of relativity. Won Nobel Prize in Physics (1921) for his discovery of the Photoelectric effect, which formed the basis of Quantum Theory.

Srinivasa_RamanujanSrinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920) Indian. Self-taught mathematician, Ramanujan developed highly original and insightful theorems in number theory, infinite series and continued fractions. Credited with  Ramanujan prime and the Ramanujan theta function. Worked with G.W. Hardy (Cambridge)

Alan TuringAlan_Turing (1912-1954) British computer scientist. Considered the father of computer science and one of the most brilliant minds of Twentieth Century. Cracked the enigma code during the Second World War.

John_NashJohn Forbes Nash, Jr. (1928 – ) – American mathematician. Worked on game theory, partial differential equations and differential geometry. He made great insights into the maths of chance and complex decision making. Awarded Nobel Prize in Economics 1994. His life was the source material for film ‘A Beautiful Mind’

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan “Famous Mathematicians”, Oxford, UK. www.biographyonline.net 30th March 2015. Updated 30th Jan 2017.

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scientisFamous Scientists – Famous scientists from Aristotle and Archimedes to Albert Einstein and Charles Darwin.

voltairePeople of the Enlightenment (1650s to 1780s) The enlightenment is a period which saw the growth of intellectual reason, individualism and a challenge to existing religious and political structures.

einsteinGreat Thinkers – Influential and insightful thinkers, who have made significant contributions in fields of science, philosophy, literature and the humanities.

rene-descartesPhilosophers – Some of the world’s greatest philosophers, including Socrates, Plato, Descartes, Kant, Spinoza and David Hume.

 

 

Famous feminists and quotes

Feminism is a broad range of movements and ideologies which seek to work towards greater equality between men and women. Within feminism, there are different strands and emphasis, but most feminists would share the same idea of equal rights and equal opportunities.

A list of famous feminists and famous quotes.

mary-wollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft (1759 – 1797) English author, Wollstonecraft wrote the most significant book in the early feminist movement. Her tract “A Vindication of the Rights of Women” laid down a clear moral and practical basis for extending human and political rights to women.

“I do not wish them [women] to have power over men; but over themselves.”

– Mary Wollstonecraft

Sojourner_truthSojourner Truth (1797 – 1883) African-American abolitionist and women’s rights campaigner. In 1851, gave a famous extemporaneous speech “Ain’t I a woman?” which explained in plain language how women were essentially equal to men.

J.S. Mill (1806-1873) John Stuart Mill was a leading liberal philosopher of the Nineteenth Century. He argued for universal suffrage (extending the vote to women and all classes of people)  His pamphlet The Subjection of Women (1861) was influential for raising the issue of votes for women.

the legal subordination of one sex to the other — is wrong in itself, and now one of the chief hindrances to human improvement; and that it ought to be replaced by a principle of perfect equality, admitting no power or privilege on the one side, nor disability on the other.

– J.S. Mill Subjection of Women (1861)

harriet-beecher-stoweMargaret Fuller (1810 – 1850) An American women’s rights advocate. Her book Women in the Nineteenth Century (1845) was influential in changing perceptions about men and women and was one of the most important early feminist works. She argued for equality and women being more self-dependent and less dependent on men.

“Male and female represent the two sides of the great radical dualism. But in fact they are perpetually passing into one another. Fluid hardens to solid, solid rushes to fluid. There is no wholly masculine man, no purely feminine woman… Nature provides exceptions to every rule.”

― Margaret Fuller, Women in the Nineteenth Century (1845)

elizabeth-cady-stantonElizabeth Cady Stanton (1815 – 1902)  American social activist and leading figure in the early women’s rights movement. She was a key figure in helping to create the emerging women’s suffrage movements in the US. She was the principal author of ‘Declaration of Sentiments’ in 1848.

“We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal.”

― Elizabeth Cady Stanton, History of Woman Suffrage

susan-b-anthonySusan B. Anthony (1820 – 1906) American Campaigner against slavery and for the promotion of women’s and workers rights. She played a key role in the movement to pursue suffrage for women.

“Woman must not depend upon the protection of man, but must be taught to protect herself.”

― Susan B. Anthony

elizabeth-garrett-andersonElizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836 – 1917) – Britain’s first qualified female doctor. She passed the medical exam and obtained a licence (LSA) from the Society of Apothecaries. She set up her own medical practice. In 1873 was the first woman to be admitted to the British Medical Association (BMA)

emily-pankhurstEmmeline Pankhurst (1858 – 1928) British suffragette, Emily Pankhurst dedicated her life to the promotion of women’s rights. She explored all avenues of protest including violence, public demonstrations and hunger strikes. She died in 1928, three weeks before a law giving all women over 21 the right to vote.

“We have to free half of the human race, the women, so that they can help to free the other half.”

― Emmeline Pankhurst, The Suffragette: The History of the Women’s Militant Suffrage Movement

Margaret-SangerMargaret Sanger (1879-1966) – Through her work as a nurse in New York’s Lower East side in 1912, Margaret Sanger worked hard to improve birth control practice to prevent unwanted pregnancies. This groundbreaking shift in attitude led to the foundation of the American Birth Control League. Sanger is credited with playing a leading role in the acceptance of contraception.

“No woman can call herself free who does not control her own body.”

― Margaret Sanger

Marie StopesMarie_Stopes (1880 –  1958) British author, palaeobotanist and campaigner for eugenics and women’s rights. Stopes played a major role in making contraception more widely available.

Katharine Hepburnactor (1907 – 2003) Multiple Oscar-winning American actress. Hepburn’s independence of mind and assertiveness helped redefine women’s roles in Hollywood and post-war America.

“I just recently realized that women are supposed to be the inferior sex”

— Katharine Hepburn

beauvoirSimone de Beauvoir (1908 – 1986)French existentialist philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir developed a close personal and intellectual relationship with Jean-Paul Satre. Her book “The Second Sex” depicted the traditions of sexism that dominated society and history. It was a defining book for the feminist movement.

“To gain the supreme victory, it is necessary, for one thing, that by and through their natural differentiation men and women unequivocally affirm their brotherhood.”

– Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (1949)

betty-friedenBetty Friedan (1921 – 2006) – American social activist and leading feminist figure of the 1960s; she wrote the best-selling book “The Feminine Mystique” Friedan campaigned for an extension of female rights and an end to sexual discrimination.

“The feminine mystique has succeeded in burying millions of American women alive.”

– Betty Friedan, “The Feminine Mystique” (1963)

Coretta_Scott_KingCoretta Scott King (1927 –  2006) Civil rights and social activist. After the death of her husband, she continued to campaign for civil rights and gay rights. She also helped to found the National Organisation for Women. (NOW)

Gloria_steinemGloria Steinem (1934 – ) An American feminist, journalist, and social activist. She was one of the most prominent leaders of the US feminist movement of the 1960s 1970s. She played a vital role campaigning for the Equal Rights Amendment passed in 1972. She was the co-founder of several feminist groups, such as the ‘Women’s Action Alliance’.

“I’m not sure feminism should require an adjective. Believing in the full social, political, and economic quality of women, which is what the dictionary says “feminism” means, is enough to make a revolution in itself.”

– Gloria Steinem

germaine-greerGermaine Greer (1939 – ) Australian feminist icon of the 1960s and 1970s, Germaine Greer, enjoys raising contentious issues. In particular her book “The Female Eunuch” was a defining manifesto for the feminist movement, which proved influential in the 1960s.

billie-jean-kingBillie Jean King (1943 – ) American tennis player.  Billie Jean King was one of the greatest female tennis champions, who also battled for equal pay for women. She won 67 professional titles including 20 titles at Wimbledon.

“I have often been asked whether I am a women or an athlete. The question is absurd. Men are not asked that. I am an athlete. I am a women.”
– Billie Jean King

billie-jean-kingShirin Ebadi (1947 – ) An Iranian lawyer, Ebadi has fought for human rights in Iran – representing political dissidents and founding initiatives to promote democracy and human rights. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003.

“Whenever women protest and ask for their rights, they are silenced with the argument that the laws are justified under Islam. It is an unfounded argument. It is not Islam at fault, but rather the patriarchal culture that uses its own interpretations to justify whatever it wants.”

– Shirin Ebadi

Naomi_KleinNaomi Klein – Anti-capitalist and anti-globalisation writer. Also, labels herself as feminist, and supporting the equal rights movement.

Rigoberta_MenchuRigoberto Menchu (1959 – ) Menchu is an activist for the rights of indigenous Guatemalans. She was active during the  Guatemalan Civil War (1960–1996) and after. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992. She also serves as a UNESCO goodwill ambassador. She also formed the Nobel Women’s Initiative with other Nobel winners, such as Shirin Ebadi and Betty Williams.

naomi-wolfNaomi Wolf (1962 – ) Author of The Beauty Myth – which argued beauty was a socially manufactured construct. She has been considered one of the leaders of the third wave of feminism.

“What are other women really thinking, feeling, experiencing, when they slip away from the gaze and culture of men?”
― Naomi Wolf, The Beauty Myth

Emma_WatsonEmma Watson (15 April 1990 – ) British actress famous for role as Hermione Granger in Harry Potter film series. UN ambassador for women and feminist activist. Watson sought to redefine feminism to be more inclusive of involving men in the campaign for equal rights and ending the idea of feminism as ‘man-hating’.

“When at 15, my girlfriends started dropping out of their beloved sports teams, because they didn’t want to appear muscle-y, when at 18, my male friends were unable to express their feelings, I decided that I was a feminist.”

– Emma Watson

malalaMalala Yousafzai (1997 – ) Pakistani schoolgirl who defied threats of the Taliban to campaign for the right to education. She survived being shot in the head by the Taliban and has become a global advocate for women’s rights, especially the right to education.

“I raise up my voice-not so I can shout but so that those without a voice can be heard…we cannot succeed when half of us are held back.”

― Malala Yousafzai

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Famous feminists”, Oxford, UK. www.biographyonline.net, 12th January 2016

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Famous Composers

A list of famous and influential composers throughout history, including the greatest composers Bach, Mozart, Beethoven and Franz Schubert.

Composers of the Medieval period

hildegard-von-bingenHildegard von Bingen (1097 – 1179) German writer, mystic, composer and polymath. Hildegard wrote many liturgical songs, which pushed the boundaries of traditional Gregorian Chant. Her greatest work was Ordo Virtutum (Play of the Virtues) – a morality play.

Composers of the Renaissance period

 

john-dunstableJohn Dunstable (1390 – 1453) English composer of polyphonic music. Dunstable had a big influence on the development of music through his creation of chords with triads, which became known as the Burgundian School: la countenance angloise or “the English countenance” e.g Quam pulchra es.

Giovanni-da_PalestrinaGiovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525 – 1594) Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music. Palestrina was a prolific composer of masses, motets, madrigals and offertories. An influential work was Missa Papae Marcelli (Pope Marcellus Mass)

William_ByrdWilliam Byrd (1543 – 1623) English composer of the Renaissance. He wrote in many of the forms current in England at the time, including various types of sacred and secular polyphony. He helped the development of Anglican church music, and also secular vocal music with his use of Tudor consort and keyboard fantasia.

Composers of the Baroque Period

 

Henry_PurcellHenry Purcell (1659-1695) English composer of the Baroque period. Purcell wrote some early baroque classics such as Te Deum and Jubilate Deo. He also wrote for theatre and England’s first opera.

j.s.bachBach (1685 – 1750) German composer of the Baroque period. One of the most prolific composers of all time. Bach brought Baroque music to its pinnacle of musical maturity. Famous works of Bach include: Brandenburg Concertos, the Mass in B minor, St Matthew’s Passion, St John’s Passion; Bach also wrote organ pieces and over 300 sacred cantatas.

George_Frideric_HandelGeorge Frederick Handel (1685 – 1759) German-born composer who spent a lot of time in England. He wrote operas and oratorios. Famous works include Messiah “Hallelujah Chorus”, Music For The Royal Fireworks, Jephtha, Chaconne Variations in G  Coronation Anthems, Zadok the Priest.

Composers of the Classical Period

 

Joseph_HaydnJoseph Haydn (1732 – 1809) Prolific Austrian composer of the classical period. He helped develop chamber music such as the piano trio and string quartet. Also wrote amongst first extensive symphonies and contributed to the development of sonata. Haydn’s famous works include Cello Concerto No.1 in C major and Symphony No.94 in G major.

mozartMozart (1756 – 1791) Austrian classical composer. Composing from the age of 6, Mozart’s repertoire varied from light waltzes and dances to the spiritual elevating choral music of Missa Brevis and Mass in C minor. He composed over 600 pieces, including symphonies, operas (e.g. Le Nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro), concertos (e.g. Piano Concerto no. 21) and chamber music.

Ludwig_van_BeethovenBeethoven (1770 – 1827) German composer and pianist of the classical and romantic period. Another prodigious genius. Beethoven’s compositions invoked both tremendous power, and soulfulness; he had a lasting influence on western classical music. His greatest works include his Symphonies No.6 and his choral work Missa Solemnis.

Gioachino-RossiniGioachino Rossini (1792 – 1868) Italian composer. Rossini wrote 38 great operas, transforming the opera into its modern form. Great Italian works include The Barber of Seville (1816) and La Cenerentola. He also moved to Paris and wrote for the French theatre, including the operas Count Ory (1828) and William Tell (1829)

Franz_SchubertFranz Schubert (1797 – 1828) Austrian composer who bridged the classical and romantic periods. One of the few composers to evoke the spirit of Mozart, especially in his work – Symphony number 5. Schubert composed seven symphonies sacred music, operas and piano music. He was also a great composer of secular vocal songs. Famous works include his immortal version of Ave Maria D.839Piano Sonata in A major, D 959, Symphony in C major (Great C major, D 944), and Symphony No.5 in Bb major D.485.

Composers of the Romantic Period

 

Hector_BerliozHector Berlioz (1803 – 1869) French composer of the Romantic period. Berlioz composed a Requiem for 210 voices Grande Messe des morts (Requiem) and Symphonie fantastique. He made significant contributions to the romantic period and the development of the modern orchestra.

Felix-MendelssohnFelix Mendelssohn (1809 – 1847) German composer of the romantic period. Mendelssohn wrote symphonies, concerti, oratorios, piano music and chamber music. His famous works include Hebrides Overture (Fingal’s Cave) (1830), Violin Concerto in E minor, Op. 64 (1844) and his piano compositions – ‘Songs without words’

frederic-chopinFrederick Chopin (1810 – 1849) Polish-born classical composer. Important compositions include piano collections, Études, Opp. 10 and 25, and the 24 Preludes, Op. 28. Chopin also wrote numerous polonaises, sonatas, waltzes, impromptus and nocturnes. Chopin is the most influential composer for the piano, becoming a staple for all piano students.

Franz_LisztFranz Liszt (1811 – 1886) Hungarian composer and virtuoso pianist. Liszt was a prominent member of the “New German School” of musicians. Significant compositions include Piano Sonata in B minor (1853), “Liebesträume No. 3”. He also transcribed for the piano great works by other composers, such as Schubert. Also developed new musical ideas, such as the symphonic poem.

Giuseppe-verdiGiuseppe Verdi (1813 – 1901) Italian opera composer of the romantic period. Verdi is considered one of the greatest opera composer of all time. Famous works include “Va, Pensiero” (The Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves), the “Coro di zingari” (Anvil Chorus) from Il Trovatore and the “Grand March” from Aida. He also composed other works outside opera, such as Messa da Requiem (1874).

Richard-WagnerRichard Wagner (1813 – 1883) German composer who wrote epic operas such as the  Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung). Beginning in the romantic tradition, Wagner developed his own complex and unique style of ‘total art.’

Johann_Strauss_IIJohann Strauss Jr. (1825 – 1899) Austrian composer of popular light music. He wrote over 500 waltzes, polkas, quadrilles. Famous works include Blue Danube Waltz, Egyptian March, Persian March and Roses from the South Waltz.

Johannes-BrahmsJohannes Brahms (1833 – 1897) German composer who spent most of his life in Austria. Although of the romantic period, Brahms used many of the principles of baroque and classical music in his compositions. Famous works include Violin Concerto in D major, Op 77, “Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90: Allegro con brio”  and Sinfonia n. 2 em ré major op. 73

TchaikovskyPyotr Tchaikovsky (1840 – 1893) Russian composer. Tchaikovsky was the greatest composer of the Romantic period. Compositions include the 1812 Overture, Romeo and Juliet Overture, Piano Concerto No. 1 in B flat minor and ballet compositions – Swan Lake and Nutcracker.

Saint-SaensCamille Saint-Saëns (1835 – 1921) French composer, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era. Famous works include  Second Piano Concerto (1868), the First Cello Concerto (1872), Danse macabre (1874), the opera Samson and Delilah (1877), the Third Violin Concerto (1880) and The Carnival of the Animals (1887).

Rimsky-KorsakovNikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844 – 1908) Russian composer who infused a Russian tradition of folk music into a classical genre. He wrote five operas, symphonies and orchestral works. Famous works include Scheherazade, Capriccio Espagnol  (including The Flight of the Bumble Bee).

Gabriel-FaureGabriel Faure (1845 – 1924) French composer of the late Romantic period. Faure composed intimate Chamber music and many compositions for the piano. Famous works include choral masterpieces – Pavane and Requiem, and his Nocturnes for piano, such as Après un rêve” and “Clair de lune”.

Edvard_GriegEdvard Greig (1843 – 1907) Norwegian composer. Greig was one of the most notable composers of the Romantic period. Famous works include – Piano Concerto in A minor Op. 16, Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, Op. 46, IV. (In the Hall of the Mountain King) and Peer Gynt Suite No.1

Late Nineteenth and Twentieth Century – neo-classical / Impressionist

Edward_ElgarEdward Elgar (1857 – 1934) English composer who created many great orchestral works of the late classical repertoire. Famous works include Enigma Variations (1899) and Symphony No. 2 in E-flat, Op. 63 (1909–1911). Many works are important for British / English musical identity, e.g. Pomp and Circumstance, (including Land of Hope and Glory)

Gustav_MahlerGustav Mahler (1860 – 1911) (Austrian Empire / now the Czech Republic) Mahler was a composer of the late Romantic period. His symphonies (No. 5, No. 2 and No.1) have become some of the best known in the classical repertoire.

Claude_DebussyClaude Debussy (1862 – 1918) French composer of Impressionist music. Debussy used non-traditional scales and chromaticism to develop new strands of classical music. Famous works include Clair de Lune (from Suite Bergamasque), Reverie (1890) and Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune.

Sergei_RachmaninoffSergei Rachmaninoff (1873 –1943) Russian composer. Rachmaninoff wrote five works for piano and orchestra. His most popular works included Concerto No. 2 in C minor, and Concerto No. 3 in D minor, Op. 30 (1909). Rachmaninoff was one of most daring composers, noted for his difficult pieces and extensive chords.

Gustav_HolstGustav Holst (1874 – 1934) English composer best known for his orchestral works The Planets. Holst was influenced by Wagner, but later developed his own style inspired by both English folk music and Indian mythology / Vedas.

stravinsky-igorIgor Stravinsky (1882-1971) Russian born composer, who lived in both France and America. He was an influential composer for his development of neo-classical styles. He wrote ballets, such as The Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911) and The Rite of Spring (1913)

George_GershwinGeorge Gershwin (1898 – 1938) American composer who combined both classical and popular music. Famous for his modern jazz classic Rhapsody in Blue (1924) and the opera “Porgy and Bess.”

Dmitri-shostakovichDmitri Shostakovich (1906 – 1975) Russian composer who fused neo-classical and post-romantic styles. Famous works include Waltz, no.2, Symphony No. 15 and Piano Concerto No.2.

Leonard_BernsteinLeonard Bernstein. (1918 – 1990) American composer. The conductor of the New York Philharmonic orchestra. Bridged classical music and popular music. Wrote musicals: “On The Town,” “Wonderful Town,” and “West Side Story.”

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Famous Composers”, Oxford, UK. www.biographyonline.net Published 4 March. 2015. Last updated 8 February 2018.

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Books that changed the world

A selection of over 50 books that helped to influence and change the world. These books have all had an impact on human society and human culture.

Bhagavad-GitaBhagavad Gita (c. 3100 B.C)  – ‘The Song of God‘ – is a classic Hindu scripture which records the discourse of Sri Krishna and Arjuna on the Battlefield of Kurukshetra. Sri Krishna taught a practical spirituality that could be practised in the world and did not require world-renunciation. The philosophy of the Gita includes bhakti yoga (devotion) and karma yoga (selfless action)

iliad-homerThe Iliad (8th Century BC) – Homer. One of the earliest surviving classics of Western literature, the Iliad is an epic poem telling the story and characters of the Trojan War – such as Achilles and King Agamemnon. The Iliad also tells of ancient Greek legends.

the-histories-heroditusThe Histories (c. 450 – 420s BC) – Herodotus  (Greek)  The Histories was one of the first major works of history – documenting the peoples and times of ancient Greece, Persia and Northern Africa. It is an important source for knowledge about those times and set an important precedent for documenting history.

torahThe Torah (c. 600 – 400 BC) Judaism believes the Torah was received by Moses on Mount Sinai; it incorporates five main books (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy). It is the principal account of Jewish history, traditions and customs. It is highly influential in Judeo-Christian culture, and the five principle books were incorporated into the Bible.

dhammapadaThe Dhammapada (c 3rd-1st Century BC) – Sayings of the Buddha. The Dhammapada is a written account of Buddha’s sayings on the spiritual life and his advice to monks. They contain the essence of Buddhism through topics, such as meditation, detachment, liberation and controlling the mind.

analectsThe Analects c. 475 BC–221 BC) – Confucius  The Analects contain the sayings of the Chinese sage Confucius. The Analects encourage people to cultivate wisdom (ren) through devotion to one’s parents/family and loyalty to their ruler. It is essentially a conservative philosophy encouraging morally and ethically upstanding citizens. It is the most influential book in Chinese history and is widely read today.

plato-the-republicThe Republic (c. 4th Century BC) – Plato. The Republic is a highly influential book on political and social philosophy. It is written in the form of a Socratic dialogue where different participants discuss concepts of justice, good governance, the nature of the soul, and ideas of what constitutes happiness. Plato argues that one of the best forms of government would be to give power to philosopher-kings – independently minded arbiters of just rule.

euclid-elements-150Euclid’s Elements (c. 300 BC) A mathematical and geometric treatise consisting of 13 books written by the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria. Euclid combined many different aspects of mathematics and presented them in a coherent and logical format. His clarity meant this became the standard mathematics textbook into the Nineteenth Century.

geography-ptlomeyGeographia (c. 100- 170 AD) Ptolemy Ptolemy created a book of maps, atlas which summarised the Roman knowledge of world geography. It was translated into Latin in Europe during the early part of the Renaissance and provided an influential starting point for European knowledge of world geography.

quranThe Qu’ran (c. 609 AD – 632 AD). The Qu’ran,  meaning “recitation” is considered the holy book of Islam. Muslims believe the Qu’ran contains revelations from God revealed by the Archangel Gabriel to Muhammad. The Qu’ran teaches a monotheistic religion, where followers are encouraged to surrender to God.

canon-medicineCanon of Medicine (1025AD) – Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna). The Canon of Medicine is an encyclopaedia of medical knowledge compiled by Persian philosopher Ibn Sīnā. It includes some of the most important medical knowledge of the time – including Galenic medicine, Chinese medicine and some of Aristotle’s writings. It served as a medical textbook in Europe into the Seventeenth Century.

the_canterbury_tales_by_geoffrey_chaucerThe Canterbury Tales (c. 1390s) – Geoffrey Chaucer’s  ‘The Canterbury Tales‘ are a collection of 20 books written in Middle English, telling accounts of English life in the Middle Ages. Chaucer was a master storyteller, also including criticism of the church and aspects of English life. The book was an influential moment in encouraging the use of English – as opposed to Latin.

don-quixoteDon Quixote (1605) – Miguel de Cervantes. Don Quixote (The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha) is one of the world’s greatest novels. It is highly influential in Western literature – and Spanish literature in particular. It explores themes of chivalry, realism, justice and simplicity.

holy-bibleThe Bible – King James Version (1611) Commissioned shortly after the first English translation of the Bible by John Wycliffe. The King James Bible was translated from Greek and Aramaic and became the defining English translation for the Western World; it became the most printed book in the world. It has been admired for its quality of English and poetic descriptions.

William_Shakespeare_First_Folio_1623First Folio (1623) – William Shakespeare. The first comprehensive publication of Shakespeare’s plays. The First Folio includes 36 of Shakespeare’s plays and is the primary source material for much of Shakespeare’s work. Its publication began the gradual process of making Shakespeare the most widely read author in the English language. Shakespeare’s influence on language, literature are hard to quantify – given the global and universal appeal of his work.

anatomy-harveyAn Anatomical Study of the motion of the heart and blood in Animals (1628) – William Harvey. A pioneering work on the circulation of blood. Harvey also offered a revolutionary scientific method – with hypothesis, experiments and observations. It influenced our understanding of physiology and also set a benchmark for scientific studies.

dialogue-galileoDialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632) – Galileo Galilei –  In this Italian book, Galileo compared Copernicus’ heliocentric view of the world with the contemporary view of Ptolemy (earth centre of the universe) Galileo’s findings were influential in shifting opinion about the nature of the universe. His book was placed on the Catholic Church’s list of prohibited books until 1835.

newton-principiaPrincipia Mathematica (1687) – Isaac Newton Full title – Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Latin for “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” This great work formed the basis of modern physics. Newton included his theory of gravity, the law of motion/mechanics and consolidated Kepler’s law of planetary motion. Newton developed new modes of mathematics and calculus to offer proof for his ideas. Widely considered to be the most influential science book of all time.

Johnson-DictionaryA Dictionary of the English Language (1755) – Samuel Johnson. Johnson did not write the first dictionary, but his was by far the most comprehensive dictionary and became the standard for English dictionaries until the OED in 1888. The Johnson dictionary was commissioned by printers who wanted a better quality dictionary to meet with the growing literacy and demand for books. Even the OED – 187 years later – used many of Johnson’s explanations.

sorrows-of-young-wertherThe Sorrows of Young Werther (1774)– Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Goethe’s novel about a sensitive and passionate young man became a best seller and was translated into several European languages. The book helped Goethe become one of the first international literary celebrities. The novel and romantic ideals had a significant impact on the burgeoning Romantic Movement of the late Eighteenth Century.

wealth-of-nationsThe Wealth of Nations (1776) – Adam Smith. Smith’s work on economics became the founding cornerstone of classical economics – helping to define the relatively new subject, which was becoming increasingly important with the advent of the Industrial Revolution. Smith’s work considered free markets, free trade, the division of labour and monopoly power.

common-senseCommon Sense (1776) – Thomas Paine. Common Sense was a political pamphlet published at the beginning of the American Revolution. It spoke in simple and direct language about the benefits of American Independence from Great Britain. It appealed to ordinary people and helped to garner support for American Independence. It was also revolutionary for ushering in a more democratic and Republican politics.

lyrical-balladsLyrical Ballads (1798)– William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.  These volumes of poetry include some of Wordsworth’s and Coleridge’s finest poetry – such as The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (Coleridge) and Lines written above Tintern Abbey (Wordsworth). The poetry was influential for its simpler lyrical style. Wordsworth wrote that the book was an experiment to see if the language of poetry could be made more accessible to ordinary people – as opposed to the more rigid and highly formalised styles of 18th Century poetry. Lyrical Ballards is often considered to be the start of the English Romantic Movement, marking a defining shift in English literature.

Pride-And-PrejudicePride and Prejudice (1813) – Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice is one of the most enduringly popular novels in the English language. It deals with issues of class, marriage, manners and morality. It’s popularity and a lasting legacy on this romantic genre of novel. Jane Austen’s success also made it easier for women to be taken seriously as writers.

Charles_Dickens-A_Christmas_CarolA Christmas Carol (1843)– Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol is one of Dicken’s most popular short stories. It deals with the contrasting themes of the joy of Christmas and the unhappiness of being miserly and devoted to money. It helped revitalise Christmas traditions, while containing some classic Dickens satire of Victorian Capitalism.

communist-manifestoThe Communist Manifesto 1848 – Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. The Communist Manifesto is a short and succinct revolutionary document which called for the overthrow of Capitalist society. Unlike Marx’ denser works, the language of the Manifesto was incendiary and inspirational for those who wanted to see the end of Capitalism. Marxism became a driving philosophy behind the Russian Revolution and influenced other Western states who became fearful of a Communist Revolution.

Uncle-Toms-CabinUncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) – Harriet Beecher Stowe. Uncle Tom’s Cabin is an anti-slavery novel, which portrayed the harsh realities of slavery. It also offered an optimistic view of how Christian charity and love could overcome a man-made evil such as slavery. It is considered to be highly influential in shaping American public opinion and turning people against slavery – which was a key issue of the civil war.

Madame_BovaryMadame Bovary (1857) – Gustave Flaubert (French). Flaubert’s novel depicts the life of a doctor’s wife who pursues affairs and excitement to escape the banality of life. It’s publication was considered shocking for its depiction of adultery – the resulting obscenity trial helped increase its profile and sales. Its gritty realism was also very significant for the development of the modern realistic genre of literature.

Gray's_AnatomyGray’s Anatomy (1858) An English-language textbook of human anatomy, originally written by Henry Gray. It is was the first comprehensive analogy of human anatomy and part of the movement to formalise and clarify medical treatment. It was so useful that it became the classic textbook for physicians. It has been continually revised and republished since 1858.

Origin_of_Species-darwinOn the Origin of Species (1859) – Charles Darwin –  On the Origin of Species was a culmination of Darwin’s life work examining the development of life and species. It is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology and critical for overturning mankind’s idea of where it came from. The theory of evolution was a direct challenge to a literal interpretation of the Bible, and its publication was met with significant controversy.

on-liberty-j.s-millOn Liberty (1859) – John Stuart Mill On Liberty is an influential justification for personal liberty and defining the limits of state intervention.  – “The only freedom which deserves the name, is that of pursuing our own good in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive others of theirs, or impede their efforts to obtain it.” – Mill. On Liberty was an attempt to defend the philosophy of utilitarianism, but also defend individual rights against the ‘tyranny of the majority’.

War-and-PeaceWar and Peace (1869) – Leo Tolstoy (Russian). War and Peace is Tolstoy’s great historical epic based on the French Napoleonic invasion of Russia. It deals with all aspects of life – human emotion, politics and philosophy. In many ways, the book transcended traditional genres and brought in new literary styles, such as the ability to offer a variety of perspectives on the same scene.

The_interpretation_of_dreams-freudThe Interpretation of Dreams (1899) – Sigmund Freud – Freud was a pioneering psychologist. His work on the Interpretation of Dreams was influential for advancing Freud’s theory of the unconscious and the Oedipus Complex. Freud’s theory of psycho-analysis has proved very controversial, but his work inspired a new branch of medical science to either further or reject his initial work.

protocols-zionThe Protocols of the Elders of Zion – (1905) This was published in Russia and was a fraudulent attempt to suggest there was a Jewish conspiracy to gain control over the world through manipulation of the press and subverting Christian ideals. Although shown to be a fraud, it was widely distributed around the world and was used as a textbook in Nazi Germany, fuelling anti-Semitism.

poems-wilfred-owenPoems (1920) – Wilfred Owen. Owen’s war poetry was highly influential in creating a negative view of the First World War. His biting, ironic poems highlighted the absurdity and horror of war. The power of his poems was influential in creating a strong peace movement in Great Britain, which opposed re-armament in the 1920s and 30s.

relativity-einsteinRelativity: The Special and General Theory (1920) – Albert Einstein. Einstein’s great work on relativity helped redefine concepts of physics and our understanding of the universe. It was the most revolutionary development in physics since Newton. Einstein’s work showed that time and space are not linear and absolute, but could vary depending on circumstances. Einstein also showed that energy and mass are actually equivalent through his famous formula –  E=mc²

Ulysses-joyceUlysses (1922) James Joyce – Ulysses is a highly influential modernist work of fiction, which used experimental techniques such as a stream of consciousness writing, combined with an offbeat sense of humour – based on puns, allusions and parodies. It was unprecedented in length, scope and style, and influenced many other modernist writers.

Mein_KampfMein Kampf (1925) – Adolf Hitler. Mein Kampf was written by Hitler when he was in prison for the failed Munich Putsch attempt. It expresses Hitler’s desire for a new world order – based on his anti-Semitism and desire for expanding Germany into Eastern territories. After his rise to power in 1933, it was widely disseminated in Nazi Germany. It was also used by many who feared Hitler’s rise to power as evidence of his intent.

Lady_Chatterleys_LoverLady Chatterley’s Lover (1928) – D.H. Lawrence. The book was highly controversial for its depiction of a love affair between a working-class man and an upper-class women. It was prohibited in the UK for many decades because of its explicit sexual content. In 1960, Penguin wished to publish the book, leading to a trial about whether it contravened the obscenity act. Penguin won and it was published in 1961.

general-theory-keynesThe General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1936) John Maynard Keynes –  Keynes wrote his classic economic theory against the backdrop of the Great Depression. Keynes argued the persistence of mass unemployment was unnecessary and effective government action could overcome a prolonged slump. His book was the founding work of a new branch of economics – macro-economics. Keynesian economics continues to be highly influential both theoretically and practically for dealing with recessions.

Diary_of_Anne_FrankThe Diary of Anne Frank (1947) – Anne Frank (Dutch) – Originally published as a “Diary of a Young Girl”. The magnitude of the holocaust, with six million Jews killed, was hard for many to comprehend. The Diary of Anne Frank gave readers a personal link behind the numbers killed and helped put the holocaust into human terms.

if-this-is-a-manIf This is a Man (1947) – Primo Levi (Italian) Levi wrote this personal account of his 12-month incarceration in Auschwitz concentration camp. It is considered one of the most intimate and direct accounts of life under the degrading and dehumanising conditions of a concentration camp. It was one of the earlier personal accounts of surviving the holocaust to be published and is considered a pre-eminent first-hand account.

Animal_FarmAnimal Farm (1945) – George Orwell.  Orwell was a democratic socialist who fought in the Spanish civil war. Animal Farm is a dystopian fairy-tale, which gives a biting and immediate allegory of a revolution betrayed.  It was written as a satirical tale against Stalin’s Soviet Union and became part of the literary Cold War Propaganda against Communism.

The_Common_Sense_Book_of_Baby_and_Child_Care_(hardcover)The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1946) – Dr Spock. Spock was an American paediatrician who wrote a manual for child care, which emphasised the importance of parents relying on their natural instincts in pursuing a balanced and empathetic approach to discipline and bringing up children. He has been blamed for encouraging a decline in discipline and respect for authority, though this was partly due to his active opposition to the Vietnam War.

1984-george-orwellNineteen Eighty FourGeorge Orwell – 1949. Orwell’s classic dystopian novel. 1984 is a stark warning against the dangers of totalitarianism. It forewarns against the over-reaching power of the state and the desire to control the lives of individuals. Many phrases and ideas from 1984, such as ‘Big Brother’ and the ‘thought police’ have become part of the English language.

second-sexThe Second Sex (1949) – Simone De Beauvoir The Second Sex was written by De Beauvoir, a French existentialist philosopher. It is considered an important work in the second wave of feminism, which sought to address feminist issues, such as sexual violence, discrimination against women and equal opportunities. She also rejected the theories of Freud.

Rye_catcherThe Catcher in the Rye – J.D. Salinger – 1951. Salinger’s novel became an iconic work for teenage rebellion, dealing with issues of identity, alienation and respect for authority. It is considered influential for the ‘beat generation’ of the 1960s, which saw a widespread challenging of authority and conventional customs.

Fellowship-Ring-780Lord of the Rings (1954) – J.R.R.Tolkien. The Lord of the Rings is an epic three-part fantasy novel based in mythological Middle-earth. It became one of the best selling works of the Twentieth Century and was influential for the 1960s beat generation. It also spawned a renewed interest in the fantasy genre.

Silent_SpringSilent Spring (1962) – Rachel Carson. Silent Spring documented the danger to the environment from chemical pesticides. It is considered a seminal work in the new environmental movement which evolved from the early 1960s and which sought to give priority to protecting the environment.

Quotations_from_Chairman_Mao_Tse-Tung_bilingualQuotations from Chairman Mao (1964) – Mao Zedong Between 1964 and Mao’s death in 1976, ‘Quotations from Chairman Mao’ or the ‘Little Red Book’ became one of the most widely published books in the world. It was distributed to nearly every Chinese person and helped cement the personality cult of Mao and the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s / 70s.

harry-potterHarry Potter and Philosopher’s Stone (1997) – J.K.Rowling. One of the greatest publishing sensations of all time. This was the first book in the seven-part Harry Potter series. It has become the best selling series of books in the world, credited with revitalising interest in reading by children. It has encouraged more books from a similar genre.

 

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Books that changed the world”, Oxford, UK www.biographyonline.net 4 April 2015.

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100 Most influential books ever written  at Amazon

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Sir_Winston_S_ChurchillPeople who changed the world. Famous people who changed the course of history.

MariecurieWomen who changed the world – Famous women who changed the world, including Sappho, Marie Curie, Queen Victoria, and Catherine the Great.

ideasIdeas that changed the world – Scientific, political, religious and technological ideas that transformed the world. Including – democracy, feminism, human rights and relativity.

un-logoQuotes that changed the world –  Inspiring Quotes that changed the world from some of the world’ leading minds, such as Einstein, Buddha, Darwin, Galileo.

ideasIdeas that changed the world – Scientific, political, religious and technological ideas that transformed the world. Including – democracy, feminism, human rights and relativity.

Inventions that changed the world. – From aluminium and the aeroplane to pasteurisation and penicillin.

 

Famous doctors

A selection of famous doctors from Hippocrates to the first female doctors and pioneers in the use of new treatments.

hippocratesHippocrates  (460 – 377 BC) –- Hippocrates was a great doctor of ancient Greece. Through his careful examination of patients, treatments and success rates, he was able to vastly improve his medical treatment. Hippocrates built up one of the great libraries of medical science in Kos. He is also credited with the Hippocratic oath which is still sworn today by medical practitioners.

ParacelsusParacelsus (1493 –  1541) Swiss-German physician and leading health reformer. Paracelsus founded the discipline of toxicology and pioneered the use of chemicals in treating patients. He rebelled against the medical orthodoxy of the day, emphasising practical experience rather than ancient scriptures. He was also one of the first doctors to note illnesses can be psychological in nature.

Richard_LowerRichard Lower (1631 – 1691) English physician who pioneered work on blood transfusions. He observed the circulation of blood and how it interacted with air.

William_HarveyWilliam Harvey (1578 – 1657) English physician. He was the first known doctor to describe in detail the circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart.

Benjamin_RushBenjamin Rush (1745 – 1813) American physician, social reformer and ‘American Founding Father’.  Rush was a professor of medical theory, and clinical practice at the University of Pennsylvania. He pioneered improved hygiene standards in hospitals and was the principal founder of American psychiatry. He also served as Surgeon General in the Continental army.

Edward Jenner (1749 – 1823) English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of a smallpox vaccine. Jenner’s breakthrough vaccine also enabled many other vaccines to be developed.

rene-laennecRené Laennec (1781 –  1826) French physician. Laennec invented the stethoscope – which helped improve treatment of many chest infections. He also developed an understanding of peritonitis and cirrhosis.

Elizabeth_BlackwellElizabeth Blackwell ( 1821 – 1910) Born in Britain, Blackwell was the first women to receive a medical degree in America and the first women to be on the UK medical register. Blackwell helped to break down social barriers, enabling women to be accepted as doctors.

Theodor-BillrothTheodor Billroth (1829 – 1894) Prussian physician who pioneered abdominal surgery. He carried out the first successful gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Billroth was also an amateur musician.

Joseph_ListerJoseph Lister (1827 – 1912) English surgeon. Lister pioneered the use of antiseptic (Carbolic acid) and antiseptic surgery which dramatically improved survival rates from major surgery.

Henry_GrayHenry Gray (1827 – 1861) an English anatomist and surgeon most notable for publishing the book Gray’s Anatomy, which offered a comprehensive identification of parts of the human body.

 

elizabeth-garrett-andersonElizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836 – 1917) First female registered doctor in Britain. Also, helped found first teaching college for female doctors.

Upendranath_BrahmachariUpendranath Brahmachari (1873 – 1946) Indian scientist and a leading medical practitioner of his time. In an era before antibiotics, he pioneered the synthesis and use of Urea Stibamine, which was effective in treating (Visceral leishmaniasis an often devastating disease in rural India.

roger_bannisterRoger Bannister (1929 – ) British athlete and doctor. Roger Bannister achieved sporting fame by becoming the first athlete to run a sub-four minute mile in Oxford, 1954 – whilst working as a doctor. Bannister said he achievements as a doctor (neurologist) were greater than his sporting records.

carl-jungCarl Jung (1875 – 1961) Swiss physician, psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology. Although a practising doctor, his famous works were in fields of dreams, psychology and philosophy.

Sigmund_FreudSigmund Freud (1885 – 1939) Austrian /Czech physician, leading figure in the new science of psychoanalysis. Freud made an extensive study of dreams and the sub-conscious to try and understand better human emotions.

Fredrick_bantingFrederick Banting (1891 – 1941) Canadian physician and medical scientist, he was the co-inventor of insulin and pioneered its use in people with diabetes. Awarded Nobel Prize in Medicine 1923

Howard_FloreyHoward Florey (1898 –  1968) Australian doctor who played a major role in turning penicillin into a practical drug. Florey pioneered the first clinical trials at the Radcliffe Hospital Oxford. Florey’s experience led to millions of lives being saved within a short time of his clinical trials.

Benjamin_McLane_SpockBenjamin Spock (1903 –  1998) American paediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care (1946) – revolutionised attitudes to bringing up children. Spock encouraged mothers to use natural instinct and less formal disciplinarian approaches.

Charles_R_DrewCharles Drew (1904 –  1950) African-American physician and surgeon who helped improve techniques for the storage and transfusion of blood. He protested against the racial profiling of blood donations as he felt it had no medical basis.

Virginia_ApgarVirginia Apgar (7 June 1909–7 August 1974)  American obstetrical anesthesiologist. She was a leader in the fields of anesthesiology and teratology. She pioneered the Apgar test for the health of newborn babies.

christaan_BarnardChristiaan Barnard (1922 –  2001) South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world’s first successful human-to-human heart transplant.

Ian_FrazerIan Frazer (1953 – ) Scottish-born Australian scientist who pioneered the first cancer-preventing vaccine. – The HPV vaccine against cervical cancer.

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Famous Doctors” Oxford, UK – www.biographyonline.net. Published 2 April 2015. Last updated 22 February 2018.

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scientisFamous scientists – Famous scientists from Aristotle and Archimedes to Albert Einstein and Charles Darwin.

voltairePeople of the Enlightenment (1650s to 1780s) The Enlightenment is a period which saw the growth in intellectual reason, individualism and a challenge to existing religious and political structures.

ideasIdeas that changed the world – Scientific, political, religious and technological ideas that transformed the world. Including democracy, feminism, human rights and relativity.

Inventions that changed the world – Famous inventions that made a great difference to the progress of the world, including aluminium, the telephone and the printing press.

 

Famous rebel leaders

A selection of famous rebel leaders throughout history. People who have led a rebellion against the existing power system – seeking greater freedom for themselves and their people.

SpartacusSpartacus (109 BC – 71 BC) A Thracian gladiator who was a slave of the Roman Empire. With other slave leaders, he led the slave revolt in the Third Servile War – this was a major slave rebellion which saw significant defeats for the Roman army before his final defeat by Crassus. Crassus crucified 6,000 of Spartacus’ followers on the road to Capua.

William_wallaceWilliam Wallace (1273 – 1305) A Scottish landowner who became principle leader of Scottish forces in the Scottish wars of Independence. He defeated an English army at the Battle of Sterling Bridge, before his later defeat and capture. He was hung, drawn and quartered on orders of King Edward I of England

hongwu-emperorZhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu Emperor) (1328 –1398). Born into a poor peasant family, Zhu joined the rebellion against the Mongol, Yuan dynasty. He rose through the ranks of the military to successfully lead the Han Chinese in overthrowing the Mongols and establishing the Ming dynasty.

wat-tylerWat Tyler (1341-1381) Leader of the 1381 English peasants revolt. The revolt was a protest against the ‘poll tax’ – an unfair tax levied on all people regardless of income. The revolt also sought to gain greater rights for peasants. He was decapitated after marching on London to meet with the Mayor of London and King Richard II.

j-RohrbachJakob Rohrbach C. 1490 – 1525. One of the leaders of the German peasants in the Peasants war of 1525. He was captured and burnt alive for his part in the violent disputes.

yemelyan-PugachevYemelyan Pugachev (1742 – 1775) A Russian who led the Cossack insurrection against Russia, during the rule of Catherine II. The insurrection was initially quite successful, but he was later captured and taken to Moscow where he was executed.

crazy-horseCrazy Horse (1840 –  1877) A Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. He led a rebellion against the US federal government who he felt were taking territories from Native Americans and harming their way of life. He achieved a notable military victory at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876. He was fatally wounded in 1877 after surrendering to American forces.

giuseppe-garibaldiGiuseppe Garibaldi (1807 – 1882) Garibaldi was a key figure in the Italian independence movement. He led Italian forces to help create a united Italy. He also led rebel movements in South America who were fighting for independence.

Bhagat_SinghBhagat Singh (1907 – 1931) Indian revolutionary who became involved in a violent opposition to British rule. His determination and courage made him a great hero of the Indian independence movement. He was executed aged 24 for his role in the killing of British officers.

che-guevaraChe Guevara (1928-1967) An Argentinian Marxist revolutionary who became a major symbol of Twentieth Century Marxist rebellions in Latin America and Africa. Guevara played a key role in the Cuban revolution and later travelled to the Congo in Africa and Bolivia in South America where he was caught by CIA and summarily executed.

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Famous Rebel leaders”, Oxford, www.biographyonline.net, 26th September 2014.

Revolutions and Revolutionary Movements

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gorbachevPoliticians – Politicians from across the world. Including Abraham Lincoln, Charles de Gaulle and Indira Gandhi.

Revolutionaries – People who inspired or began revolutions. Including Spartacus, Joan of Arc, George Washington, Karl Marx.

George_Washington-100People of the American Revolution – Leading figures in the American Revolution. Includes military leaders, philosophers, British protagonists and ordinary people. List includes; George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, George III and Benjamin Franklin.

Famous activists

A selection of people who have been prominent activists in the field of civil rights, peace, women’s rights, animal rights and other political causes.

 

dougalssFrederick Douglass (1818-1895) Douglass was a former slave who became committed to working for the emancipation of all slaves and ending the injustice of slavery and racism in America. He gave many stirring speeches criticising injustice and promoting the idea of a nation where all people were treated equally regardless of race, sex or religion.

Harriet_TubmanHarriet Tubman (1822 – 1913) African American activist who campaigned against slavery. Tubman was born into slavery but escaped and dedicated the rest of her life to overcoming the practice. She was active in the underground movement which sought to help free others currently enslaved. During the civil war, she served as a Union spy. After the civil war, she also spoke for women’s suffrage. Read On…