A selection of people who have been prominent activists in the field of civil rights, peace, women’s rights, animal rights and other political causes.
Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) Douglass was a former slave who became committed to working for the emancipation of all slaves and ending the injustice of slavery and racism in America. He gave many stirring speeches criticising injustice and promoting the idea of a nation where all people were treated equally regardless of race, sex or religion.
Harriet Tubman (1822 – 1913) African American activist who campaigned against slavery. Tubman was born into slavery but escaped and dedicated the rest of her life to overcoming the practice. She was active in the underground movement which sought to help free others currently enslaved. During the civil war, she served as a Union spy. After the civil war, she also spoke for women’s suffrage. Read On…
A list of famous firsts throughout human history. Including famous firsts in exploration, science, transport, politics, sport, culture and the arts.
First in Exploration
1492 – Christopher Colombus becomes the first European from a major power to land in the Americas (now the Bahamas). Columbus was probably preceded by others, such as the Viking Leif Erikson in the 10th Century.
1911 – 14 December – Roald Amundsen (Norway) first person to reach the South Pole.
Amundsen at the South Pole
1926 – Roald Amundsen (Norway) recognised as being the first person to reach the North Pole.
1932 – Amelia Earhart – 1st transatlantic solo flight by a woman. Flying from Newfoundland to Ireland in 15 hours.
1947 – Chuck Yeager becomes the 1st person to fly faster than the speed of sound. (670 mph in the Bell X-1 rocket.)
1953 – Sir Edmund Hillary, with Sherpa guide Tenzing Norgay, become the first men to climb Mt. Everest.
1783 – Nov. 21. – Marquis d’Arlandes and Pilatre de Rozier become the first humans to fly in a hot-air balloon for 20 minutes, in Paris.
1903 – 17 Dec. Wright Brothers make the first powered flight in North Caroline in a flight lasting 12 seconds.
Firsts in Politics
508 BC – First attempts to introduce concepts of democracy on a significant scale in ancient Greece, e.g. democratic reforms of Cleisthenes. (see: People who shaped democracy)
1215 – 15 June. Magna Carta. The 1st charter which sought to limit the power of kings by law. Magna Carta established principle of habeas corpus (see: Key events in history of democracy)
1542 – Spain enacted the first European law ‘Leyes Nuevas‘ abolishing colonial slavery.
1777 – Thomas Jefferson drafted Virginia’s Act of Establishing Religious Freedom. First bill to explicitly allowing religious freedom in 1789 1st Amendment to US constitution allowing freedom of thought and religious belief was adopted.
1789 – John Jay becomes 1st US Supreme Court chief justice.
1870 – Jefferson Long becomes the 1st African American elected to U.S. House of Representatives (for Georgia)
1946 – Trygve Lie (Norway) becomes the 1st Secretary General of United Nations.
1790 – Samuel Hopkins became the holder of US Patent #1. He patented a process for making potash and pearl ashes.
1911 – Marie Curie becomes the 1st person ever to win two Nobel Prizes. Curie received Nobel Prizes in Physics (1903) and the second in Chemistry (1911) She was also the first women to receive Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry.
Firsts in Sport
490 BC – 1st Marathon. Greek legend says that Pheidippides, a Greek messenger ran from the battle of Marathon to Athens to declare Greece had won. (and collapsed and died after delivering the message.)
1896 – Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin (French) – Organises the 1st Modern Olympic games.
1896 – 10 April 1st Olympic marathon was won by Spyridon Louis, in 2:58:50
1872 – 16 March 1872 Wanderers beat Royal Engineers in the first F.A. Cup final, at the Kennington Oval. The first major football competition to be played.
1875 – Matthew Webb (GB) becomes the first person to swim across the English Channel.
1903 – Maurice Garin (France) 1st Tour de France winner.
1930 – 30 July. Uruguay becomes the first country to win the first World Cup, held in Uruguay.
1954 – 6 May – Roger Bannister (GB) becomes the 1st person to run a mile race in under four minutes (3 minutes 59.4 seconds). He broke the four-minute barrier at Iffley Road, Oxford on the. His time was
1968 – Jim Hines (US) – First person to run 100m under 10 seconds (9.95)
1969 – 19 November Pelé scored his 1000th goal in all competitions. Becoming the first and only player to reach that milestone.
1984 – Joan Benoit (US) wins first women’s Olympic Marathon in a time of 2 hours 24 minutes and 52 seconds.
2012 – Usain Bolt (Jamaica) becomes the first athlete in history to retain the Olympic 100m and 200m titles after winning previous 2008 games. He went on to win another three gold medals at the 2016 Olympics
Firsts in Culture
105 – Cai Lun (China) credited with the first papermaking process
1440 – Johannes Gutenberg (Germany) invents the world’s first printing press which enables the mass production of books.
1455 – The Gutenberg Bible was the first major book printed in Europe with movable metal type by Johannes Gutenberg.
1597 – Jacopo Peri (Italy) writes the world’s first opera in Florence in Italy. It was called Dafne.
1955 – Nat King Cole – 1st African American US Television host on “The Nat King Cole Show”
2000 – Amazon and Microsoft collaborate to make available one of the first ebook readers. Also, free software Glassbook ebook reader for PC is launched.
First in Transport
1817 – Karl von Drais (Germany) builds the first ‘wooden horse’ a prototype for the modern bicycle (though there were no pedals on this wooden horse)
1830 – George Stephenson builds the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The world’s first major inter-city railway.
1837 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel launches the ‘Great Western’, – the first steamship to engage in transatlantic service
1885 – John Kemp Starley, produced the first successful “safety bicycle” – which is close to the standard used by bicycles today.
1885/86 – Karl Benz built and tested the world’s first purpose-built car powered by an internal petrol combustion engine
1887 – John Dunlop invents the first practical pneumatic tyre, first used on bicycles and later on motor cars
1892 – Rudolf Diesel (German) patents his first diesel engine for the motor car
1961 – Yuri Gagarin (Russian) becomes the first man to travel to outer space – completing an orbit of the earth on 12 April 1961.
1969 – Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin become first men to walk on the moon as part of the Apollo moon landing programme
1963 – Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova – Russian cosmonaut becomes the 1st woman in space.
1553 – Queen Mary I – 1st reigning queen of England.
1608 – Juliana Morell (Spanish nun) First woman to earn a doctorate degree – Doctor of Laws degree
1865 Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836 – 1917) – Britain’s first qualified female doctor. She passed the medical exam and obtained a licence (LSA) from the Society of Apothecaries. She set up her own medical practice. In 1873 was the first women to be admitted to the British Medical Association (BMA)
1875 – Stefania Wolicka, first women to receive honours degree in the modern era – from the University of Zurich in 1875.
1762 – Ann Franklin – 1st woman to hold the title of a newspaper editor, “The Newport Mercury” in Newport, RI.
1849 – Elizabeth Blackwell – 1st woman to receive a medical degree in US. (from the Medical Institution of Geneva, N.Y.)
1869 – Arabella Mansfield (US) 1st American woman lawyer. A year later, Ada H. Kepley, of Illinois, graduates from the Union College of Law in Chicago. She is the first woman lawyer to graduate from a law school.
1893 – Elizabeth Yates (NZ) elected Mayor of Onehunga, the first female mayor in the British Empire. In that year, Women given the vote in New Zealand, a first for modern democracies.
1972 – Billy Jean King – named Sports Illustrated ‘sportsperson of the year’ – becoming the first women to be given honour.
1975 – Junko Tabei (Japan) — 1st woman to reach the summit of Mt. Everest.
These are a diverse selection of famous people who died tragically early, but at the same time achieved much in their short life-pan. It includes famous celebrities of the Twentieth Century – James Dean, Buddy Holly, Jimi Hendrix, but also poets and musicians, such as John Keat, Wilfred Owen and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
One thing that is hard not to notice. Famous film stars and musicians were much more liable to dye early. It was hard to find a scientist or famous author, who died early. But, famous celebrities, seem to have a higher likelihood of passing away early.
Part of this is simply a reflection of the nature of their area of influence. Perhaps several immensely talented scientists have died early. But, they never had the time to develop their theories. Scientific discovery can be a life-long process. It can takes years of studying and experimentation to make progress. Many great scientists have achieved much in the evening of their lives.
With the film and music industry, a star can be born over-night. By their early 20s, pop and film stars can be very famous.
Another issue is the lifestyle. Many tragically early deaths in the music industry are related to drug misuse. The entertainment industry seems to be more prone to encouraging unhealthy lifestyles where drug use is more common.
Sportsmen who died early are quite rare – unless they met with a tragic accident, such as Aryton Senna or they suffered from drug misuse themselves – such as the Italian cyclist Marco Pantani.